Radical Valleys Radical Women

Dr Carol Stephens reflects on her recent contribution to the Radical Women event in Huddersfield

When I was asked to contribute to a ‘Radical Valleys’ event in Huddersfield in October I wasn’t really sure what to expect. I’d agreed to talk about the rise of Feminism in the 1970s and 1980s in an event that celebrated radical women and their activism.  Feminism in the 1970s and 1980s?  Where to begin?  Who were the audience and what would they know? To top it off I only had around 40 minutes to talk.


In the end I had nothing to worry about – the Milnsbridge Red and Green Club in Huddersfield proved to be  a warm and welcoming venue (a former Labour Club very much like a working men’s club) where socialist and environmentalists meet to socialise and learn.  A large group of women (and some men) had gathered on a sunny October Saturday to discuss everything from sexual violence to Orgreave to women’s health.  Despite the subjects being heavy, the mood was upbeat and respectful – and what was most wonderful was the range of ages: long retired women activists mingled happily with University students in their early 20s.

For my part I began with the rise of Liberal Feminism and then looked at its frailties through an exploration of class, ‘race’ and sexual violence. I was quickly joined in the discussion by women who had lived through and made this feminism and the activism which sprang from it.  A key theme which emerged during the day was that of biography and the personal as political.  As a group – around 50 attended – we discussed our life stories in terms of our engagement with work, trade unions, feminism and protest.

Thanks to Radical Valleys for organising this and inviting me – I came away refreshed by the stories I had heard and by an atmosphere of co-operation and respect.  I agreed to go to the event because of a commitment to informal learning:  my decision  paid off, a really good event.

Dr Carol Stephenson

Greenham Women … then and now

Dr Ruth Lewis reflects on the Greenham Women: Actions and Impacts, Then and Now event held in Newcastle

Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp is a powerful part of the history of women’s activism and peace activism. In the summer of 1983, thousands of women from across the country participated in the Star Marches – a simultaneous protest action which saw them mass at Greenham in Berkshire to protest against nuclear weapons. Their arrests made headline news. On 11th December 1983, 50,000 women gathered to continue the protest, including a group who travelled from Newcastle. To mark the 30th anniversary of the Greenham Common protests, a group of academics from Northumbria University, Newcastle held a commemorative, celebratory event in December 2013 and discussed the impact that this historic event has had on activism today. This was an inter-disciplinary effort: Ruth Lewis, Carol Stephenson and Sue Regan (Social Sciences) worked with, Karen Ross (Media) and Julie Scanlon (English) to merge their research, activist and political interests.

Nearly 100 people – mostly women – attended the day. Almost all were members of the public (with some academic colleagues from Northumbria, Newcastle, Durham and Sunderland) who are interested in the story of Greenham Women’s Peace Camp. Many had been involved in some way (living at the camp, visiting for demonstrations, publicising or raising funds to support the camp); others were not involved or were too young but attended the conference to hear about the legacy of Greenham for individual women, for local activism since the 1980s, including its links with contemporary women’s activism in the North East.

As is so often the way when you get a group of feminist activists in a room together, the mood was nostalgic, upbeat, celebratory, and energised. Participants shared bittersweet memories, expressed their anger at enduring injustice, demonstrated their ongoing commitment to changing their worlds.

The day was a celebratory, highly interactive mixture of presentations, talks, discussion, singing, and films. A series of speeches, storytelling and activities – such as a ‘show and tell’ session where participants shared their Greenham stories and a replica Greenham fence on which they hung their memorabilia – reminded the participants about the camp, and women’s strength and resilience. Local Making Waves Choir performed and led us in singing songs from then and now, which were both moving and humourous. We screened the acclaimed film-maker Beeban Kidron’s documentary, Carry Greenham Home and we made our own film of the event, with the help of a group of our Media undergraduates, available at: http://youtu.be/fWEPk07WWM4

Sue Regan, PhD student, provided a nostalgic and humorous reminder of the historical context in which the Greenham Peace Camp emerge (remember the ‘Gone with the Wind’ poster featuring Regan and Thatcher?!). Other speakers included: Mary Mellor, Emeritus Professor in Sociology at Northumbria University who shared her experiences of being at the Peace Camp; Ruth Lewis and Elizabeth Sharp (Texas Tech University and Durham University) presented their research about women’s experiences of women-only spaces for political organising; Roweena Russell, local activist, talked about the recent emergence of the of the North East Feminist Gathering (NEFG); and Lizi Gray, Sociology student at Northumbria University and local activist, shared her experiences of organising the local SlutWalk and other contemporary feminist activism.

As is so often the way when you get a group of feminist activists in a room together, the mood was nostalgic, upbeat, celebratory, and energised. Participants shared bittersweet memories, expressed their anger at enduring injustice, demonstrated their ongoing commitment to changing their worlds. Recording and researching women’s activism is a priority for this group of academics, who plan to develop a research project inspired by this event.

Making Sense of Happiness and Well-being?

Mark Cieslik, Northumbria University and David Bartram, University of Leicester explore how happiness research is on the rise

The growing interest in happiness and well-being?

The contemporary interest in well-being began in the 1950s with the World Health Organisation developing new ways of measuring and promoting international development. This was the beginning of efforts to include notions such as quality of life and subjective well-being into existing approaches of development that had emphasised economic growth and prosperity as key indicators of social progress. Recent decades have seen much debate and research into the attributes of a ‘good life’ and the ‘good society’ – how these would be experienced subjectively and how they might be created objectively by public policy. Many governments now conduct national well-being surveys, keen to explore the impact on subjective well-being of changes in society particularly in employment, technology and family formation.

What is Happiness?

Though the idea of happiness seems a simple and ubiquitous feature of modern societies, commentators point to various ways of understanding well-being. We can distinguish between popular notions of happiness as personal experiences of good feeling (joy and pleasure in contrast to suffering), more ‘scientific’ concepts such as subjective well-being that refer to the balance of positive and negative experiences we have (and reflect on) and finally objective or structural features of well-being such as income, family structure, community services and housing. Researchers (usually employing survey techniques) then try to correlate the structural features of societies with how these features are experienced by individuals. Hence well-being surveys from the British Office of National Statistics can tell us about variations in well-being by region of the UK and how these vary with certain characteristics such as health, education and employment status. These sorts of surveys usually offer us unremarkable insights into the nature of well-being – that higher incomes, satisfying employment, good health and secure family relationships (for example) are all important to happiness. The British economist Richard Layard has documented these trends in well-being research, championing policies that support families and communities and promote good mental health.

Critical Approaches to Happiness and Well-being

These trends have sparked much critical debate about the usefulness of “well-being” for evaluating social progress and the lives of individuals. Some social scientists are sceptical of the recent interest in well-being and happiness, suggesting that this trend reflects the individualism or even the narcissism of the age. Thus happiness and subjective well-being have been colonised by corporations and are now used to make us feel insecure about our lives – we all have to try and be happy, and popular routes to well-being involve ever greater consumption as a path to happiness. Some instead suggest that traditional concepts of inequality, poverty or disadvantage still offer greater insights into the nature of modern societies and the life chances of citizens than a focus on well-being. Others point to the crude way that well-being is understood and employed in surveys – the impossibility of capturing complex emotions and experiences with simple questions and scales. It is not obvious that responses from individuals about their happiness can be aggregated to create maps about the relative well-being of different areas of the UK. Some researchers therefore call for more complex survey techniques that can grasp the different ways that well-being is experienced at different levels – from individuals and families up to communities and regional processes.

Wellbeing as everyday practice

An alternative to survey research into well-being is to explore the ways that happiness is grounded in the everyday activities of individuals. Some researchers employ ethnographic and interview techniques to discern the different ways that well-being is experienced and pursued in different domains such as through families, partners, employment, leisure and friendships. Such approaches reflect the way Greek philosophers such as Aristotle suggested that happiness can have fleeting personal dimensions such as merry-making (Hedonia) yet also be rooted in more enduring and biographical projects that imply ‘working at happiness’ (Eudaimonia). A number of researchers are now investigating how happiness, though shaped by wider structural features in society, can also be a practical everyday accomplishment where individuals are often struggling to navigate their way through the challenges of life hoping to flourish as best they can. The happiness of individuals can reflect the sorts of resources they are able to mobilise (such as social networks and income) and also the sorts of decisions they make; likewise, different emotions, values and interests can inform the choices people make in their daily lives. Very often our efforts around well-being are focused on working at the happiness of others; care giving, compassion and altruism are still significant features of our lives. Thus these micro approaches to well-being, though appearing to focus on personal projects, also consider the important ways that well-being works at an inter-personal level – the notion of ‘social happiness’.

The promise of happiness research?

Andrew Sayer (2011) has recently suggested that our pursuit of well-being is something that we all do – it is something that really matters to us all – yet is something that is often overlooked by social scientists fixated on the pathologies of modern societies. The promise of a more sustained critical engagement with well-being – how it is experienced and can be promoted – is that it offers us a way of rethinking some of the major challenges we face today. What constitutes satisfaction with life or quality of life and how public policy can deliver these are fundamental questions in contemporary societies. At a time of austerity and hardship it might seem bizarre to research happiness, but this is perhaps precisely the time to explore what it means to be content and fulfilled and indeed to flourish.

In recent decades we have had increasingly sterile debates between Left and Right about how to recast the contract between the individual and the state. Growing inequalities, the powerlessness of citizens and the rising influence of corporations all suggest that there are limits to what markets can achieve (Sandel, 2012). Yet some of our efforts to regulate markets appear ineffectual and suggestions of a return to state management of services appear anachronistic for many. As we find ourselves caught between market or state systems, can a sustained analysis of well-being and how individuals and communities flourish help us achieve a better understanding of what makes a good society and a good life?


Sandel, M. (2012) What Money Cannot Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. London: Allen Lane.

Sayer, A. (2011) Why Things Matter to People: Social Science, Values and Ethical Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Originally published in Sociological Research Online Blog May 2014.

50 Years of Sociology at Northumbria!

The 2014-2015 academic year marks 50 years of Sociology at Northumbria.

Despite the different names and configurations as a college, collection of colleges, polytechnic and now university Sociology has been delivered on the city campus for 50 years!

Throughout the year there will be blog posts, discussions and events as the department marks this special occasion.

Do you have any thoughts or recollections you want to share or perhaps you’re a past student or staff member then do get in touch with the Sociology Programme Leader Dr Ruth Lewis on ruth.lewis@northumbria.ac.uk.

Welcome to our blog!

Welcome to the Sociology at Northumbria blog!

This is where you can find out about the programme, the staff,  events happening within the department and what we think about important social issues.